IN THIS VIDEO YOU WILL LEARN WHAT IS- IP ADDRESS, WHAT IS IPv4, WHAT IS IPv6, WHAT IS SUBNETTING (SUBNET), AND MANY MORE THINGS ABOUT IP Addressing in computer networks with Live Practical Questions related to ip addressing, ip address, subnetting, subnet, and IPv4 IPv6 etc.
An IP address (internet protocol address) is a numerical representation that uniquely identifies a specific interface on the network.
Addresses in IPv4 are 32-bits long. This allows for a maximum of 4,294,967,296 (232) unique addresses. Addresses in IPv6 are 128-bits, which allows for 3.4 x 1038 (2128) unique addresses.
IP addresses are binary numbers but are typically expressed in decimal form (IPv4) or hexadecimal form (IPv6) to make reading and using them easier for humans.
IP stands for Internet Protocol and describes a set of standards and requirements for creating and transmitting data packets, or datagrams, across networks. The Internet Protocol (IP) is part of the Internet layer of the Internet protocol suite. In the OSI model, IP would be considered part of the network layer.
How IP works
IP is designed to work over a dynamic network. This means that IP must work without a central directory or monitor, and that it cannot rely upon specific links or nodes existing. IP is a connectionless protocol that is datagram-oriented., so each packet must contain the source IP address, destination IP address, and other data in the header to be successfully delivered.
Most internet traffic is TCP/IP.
IPv4 addresses are actually 32-bit binary numbers, consisting of the two subaddresses (identifiers) mentioned above which, respectively, identify the network and the host to the network, with an imaginary boundary separating the two. An IP address is, as such, generally shown as 4 octets of numbers from 0-255 represented in decimal form instead of binary form.
For example, the address 184.108.40.206 represents the 32-bit binary number 10101000.11010100.11100010.11001100.
The binary number is important because that will determine which class of network the IP address belongs to.
An IPv4 address is typically expressed in dotted-decimal notation, with every eight bits (octet) represented by a number from one to 255, each separated by a dot. An example IPv4 address would look like this:
IPv4 addresses are composed of two parts. The first numbers in the address specify the network, while the latter numbers specify the specific host. A subnet mask specifies which part of an address is the network part, and which part addresses the specific host.
A single IP address identifies both a network, and a unique interface on that network. A subnet mask can also be written in dotted decimal notation and determines where the network part of an IP address ends, and the host portion of the address begins.The bits marking the subnet mask must be consecutive ones. Most subnet masks start with 255. and continue on until the network mask ends. A Class C subnet mask would be 255.255.255.0.
In a Class A network, the first eight bits, or the first dotted decimal, is the network part of the address, with the remaining part of the address being the host part of the address. There are 128 possible Class A networks.
0.0.0.0 to 127.0.0.0
However, any address that begins with 127. is considered a loopback address.
Example for a Class A IP address:
In a Class B network, the first 16 bits are the network part of the address. All Class B networks have their first bit set to 1 and the second bit set to 0. In dotted decimal notation, that makes 220.127.116.11 to 18.104.22.168 as Class B networks. There are 16,384 possible Class B networks.
Example for a Class B IP address:
In a Class C network, the first two bits are set to 1, and the third bit is set to 0. That makes the first 24 bits of the address the network address and the remainder as the host address. Class C network addresses range from 192.0.0.0 to 22.214.171.124. There are over 2 million possible Class C networks.
Example for a Class C IP address:
Class D addresses are used for multicasting applications. Unlike the previous classes, the Class D is not used for "normal" networking operations. Class D addresses have their first three bits set to “1” and their fourth bit set to “0”. Class D addresses are 32-bit network addresses, meaning that all the values within the range of 126.96.36.199 – 188.8.131.52 are used to uniquely identify multicast groups.
Example for a Class D IP address:
Class E networks are defined by having the first four network address bits as 1. That encompasses addresses from 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255. While this class is reserved, its usage was never defined. As a result, most network implementations discard these addresses as illegal or undefined. The exception is 255.255.255.255, which is used as a broadcast address.